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This civilisation shaped subsequent cultures in South Asia and Afghanistan.
Although the archaeological site at Harappa was partially damaged in 1857 when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad used brick from the Harappa ruins for track ballast, an abundance of artefacts have nevertheless been found.
Around 75, one of their tribes, the Kushan (Kuṣāṇa), under the leadership of Kujula Kadphises gained control of Gandhara and other parts of what is now Pakistan.
The Kushan period is considered the Golden Period of Gandhara.
The primary cities of Gandhara were Puruṣapura (Peshawar), Takṣaśilā (Taxila), and Pushkalavati (Charsadda).
Gandhara's language was a Prakrit or "Middle Indo-Aryan" dialect, usually called Gāndhārī.
The Kushans, moved from Central Asia to Bactria, where they stayed for a century.The administration of the Sikh Empire was based out of Lahore, until its defeat by the British.Punjab was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with Lahore being site of both the Declaration of Indian Independence, and the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan.Punjab during Mahabharata times was known as Panchanada. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan and eventually evolved into the Indo-Aryan civilisation.The Vedic civilisation flourished along the length of the Indus River.