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Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as locally supporting the guerillas, especially in the northern regions.

The clampdown included bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative center of Hargeisa, a Somali National Movement (SNM) stronghold, among the targeted areas in 1988.

The moral authority of Barre's government gradually eroded, as many Somalis had become disillusioned with life under military rule.

Tuur then became the newly established Somaliland polity's first President, but subsequently renounced the separatist platform in 1994 and began instead to publicly seek and advocate reconciliation with the rest of Somalia under a power-sharing federal system of governance.

On 20 July 1961 and through a popular referendum, the Somali people ratified a new constitution, which was first drafted in 1960.

In 1967, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal became Prime Minister, a position to which he was appointed by Shermarke.

In 2002, after several extensions of this interim government, Somaliland transitioned to multi-party democracy.

The lower house is chaired by Abdirahman Mohamed Abdullahi. Members of the House of Elders are elected indirectly by local communities for six-year terms.

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